Advance English Preposition Tutorial


Meaning: about, approximately. Often used with dates.

Example one: “We adopted our dog as a stray. We think she was born circa 2005.”

Example two: “The artefact is believed to come from the Smith home circa 1924.”




Meaning: next to.

Example one: “Tim and Steven worked alongside each other the entire night, giving each other encouragement.”

Example two: “The horses pranced alongside each other after their gruelling routine.”




Meaning: except.

Example one: “They paid me my full wage, excluding taxes, after one week of working at the company.”

Example two: “All my friends, excluding one, were able to come to my wedding last August.”




Meaning: regardless of; despite.

Example one: “She decided to go to the prom, notwithstanding her lack of a date.”

Example two: “He was able to finish building the treehouse, notwithstanding his broken leg.”


Owing to

Meaning: because of.

Example one: “His limp was improved owing to his strong medicine.”

Example two: “She was confident she would win the race owing to her dedicated practices.




Meaning: about; concerning.

Example one: “He called touching your teacher’s note she gave you.”

Example two: “The note, touching his true feelings for her, was hidden away.”




Meaning: except.

Example one: The entire team, bar one player, was able to attend the weekend’s tournament.

Example two: “I decided to keep all my clothes, bar the few worn down jeans.”



In lieu of

Meaning: instead of.

Example one: “May I give you roses in lieu of a poem?”

Example two: “In lieu of money, he paid me in popcorn and friendship.”

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