Meaning: about, approximately. Often used with dates.
Example one: “We adopted our dog as a stray. We think she was born circa 2005.”
Example two: “The artefact is believed to come from the Smith home circa 1924.”
Meaning: next to.
Example one: “Tim and Steven worked alongside each other the entire night, giving each other encouragement.”
Example two: “The horses pranced alongside each other after their gruelling routine.”
Example one: “They paid me my full wage, excluding taxes, after one week of working at the company.”
Example two: “All my friends, excluding one, were able to come to my wedding last August.”
Meaning: regardless of; despite.
Example one: “She decided to go to the prom, notwithstanding her lack of a date.”
Example two: “He was able to finish building the treehouse, notwithstanding his broken leg.”
Meaning: because of.
Example one: “His limp was improved owing to his strong medicine.”
Example two: “She was confident she would win the race owing to her dedicated practices.
Meaning: about; concerning.
Example one: “He called touching your teacher’s note she gave you.”
Example two: “The note, touching his true feelings for her, was hidden away.”
Example one: The entire team, bar one player, was able to attend the weekend’s tournament.
Example two: “I decided to keep all my clothes, bar the few worn down jeans.”
In lieu of
Meaning: instead of.
Example one: “May I give you roses in lieu of a poem?”
Example two: “In lieu of money, he paid me in popcorn and friendship.”