İngilizce’de Kısa Cevaplar

Kısa cevapların kullanımı

İngilizce’de bize yöneltilen sorulara evet ya da hayır şeklinde karşılık vermek ya da bir ifadeye katıldığımızı belirtmek için kısa cevap cümleleri kullanırız.

X: Is it good?                                         X: She is amazing.

Y: Yes, it is.                                            Y: Yes, she is.

 

Yes/No + Personal Pronoun + Auxiliary / Modal Verb

 

Cümleye evet ya da hayır diye başladıktan sonra, sorunun yöneltildiği kişi her kimse (özne) ona uygun kişi zamirini alır, soru cümlesinin başında kullanılan yardımcı fiili yanına kişiye uygun bir şekilde getiririz. Cevabımızın olumsuz olması durumunda her yapıda olduğu gibi yardımcı fiilin yanına not getiririz.

X: Are you okay? (İyi misin?)

Y: Yes, I am. (Evet, iyiyim.)

Soruyu sorarken kişi ikinci tekil şahısa (you) hitap ettiği için “are” kullanmış. Cevap veren kişi ise kendisine sorulan soruya “I” diyerek cevap vereceğinden cümledeki “be” fiili özneye göre değiştirilir, “am” kullanılır.

 

“to be” fiilinin geniş zamandaki halleri için:

https://www.educall.com.tr/GrammarGuide/detail/present-form-of-the-verb-be

 

Yardımcı fiiller, gerçekleştirilen eylemin zamanını göstermek ya da olumsuz veya soru cümleleri oluşturmak için ana fiil ile birlikte kullanılır. En yaygın yardımcı fiiller “have”, “be” ve “do” fiilleridir.

X: Have you seen my keys? (Anahtarlarımı gördün mü?)

Y: No I have not. (haven’t) (Hayır, görmedim)

 

X: Is he married?

Y: Yes, he is.

 

Marriage Officiant: Do you take him to be your lawfully wedded husband?                             

Bride : Yes I do.

Marriage Officiant: I now pronounce you husband and wife. 

 

Dialogue:

“What’s up with him?”

“His stomach is sick. He’s nervous about his speech.”

“He’s got food poisoning!” Helen declared. “Hasn’t he?” (İngilizce'deki “tag questions” kısa cevaplar ile karıştırılmamalıdır. Türkçe’deki “değil mi, -de/-da, tamam mı” gibi ifadelere karşılık gelir. Eklenti soruları gerçek bir soru olup karşıdaki şahısı bir cevap vermeye teşvik etmek amacıyla ya da cevabı zaten bildiğiniz bir durumda vurgu yapmak, teyit etmek amacıyla kullanılır.)

No, he has not!

Yes, he has.

(Marian Keyes, Anybody Out There? William Morrow, 2006)

 

Fiillerin farklı zamanlarda kullanımı:

FORMS OF TO BE

 

Present tense

 

Questions

Positive answers

Negative answers

Am I?

Yes, I am.

No, I 'm not.

Are you?

Yes, you are.

No, you aren't.

Is he?

Yes, he is.

No, he isn't.

Is she?

Yes, she is.

No, she isn't.

Is it?

Yes, it is.

No, it isn't.

Are we?

Yes, we are.

No, we aren't

Are you?

Yes, you are.

No, you aren't.

Are they?

Yes, they are.

No, they aren't.

 

 

 

Past tense

 

Questions

Positive answers

Negative answers

Was I?

Yes, I was.

No, I wasn't.

Were you?

Yes, you were.

No, you weren't.

Was he?

Yes, he was.

No, he wasn't.

Was she?

Yes, she was.

No, she wasn't.

Was it?

Yes, it was.

No, it wasn't.

Were we?

Yes, we were.

No, we weren't

Were you?

Yes, you were.

No, you weren't.

Were they?

Yes, they were.

No, they weren't.

 

 

 

DO

 

Present tense

 

Questions

Positive answers

Negative answers

Do I?

Yes, I do.

No, I don't.

Do you?

Yes, you do.

No, you don't.

Does he?

Yes, he does.

No, he doesn't.

Does she?

Yes, she does.

No, she doesn't.

Does it?

Yes, it does.

No, it doesn't.

Do we?

Yes, we do.

No, we don't.

Do you?

Yes, you do.

No, you don't.

Do they?

Yes, they do.

No, they don't.

 

 

 

Past tense

 

Questions

Positive answers

Negative answers

Did I?

Yes, I did.

No, I didn't.

Did you?

Yes, you did.

No, you didn't.

Did he?

Yes, he did.

No, he didn't.

Did she?

Yes, she did.

No, she didn't.

Did it?

Yes, it did.

No, it didn't.

Did we?

Yes, we did.

No, we didn't.

Did you?

Yes, you did.

No, you didn't.

Did they?

Yes, they did.

No, they didn't.

 

 

 

HAVE

 

Questions

Positive answers

Negative answers

Have I got?

Yes, I have.

No, I haven't.

Have you got?

Yes, you have.

No, you haven't.

Has he got?

Yes, he has.

No, he hasn't.

Has she got?

Yes, she has.

No, she hasn't.

Has it got?

Yes, it has.

No, it hasn't.

Have we got?

Yes, we have.

No, we haven't.

Have you got?

Yes, you have.

No, you haven't.

Have they got?

Yes, they have.

No, they haven't.

 

 

 

CAN

 

Questions

Positive answers

Negative answers

Can I?

Yes, I can.

No, I can't.

Can you?

Yes, you can.

No, you can't.

Can he?

Yes, he can.

No, he can't.

Can she?

Yes, she can.

No, she can't.

Can it?

Yes, it can.

No, it can't.

Can we?

Yes, we can.

No, we can't.

Can you?

Yes, you can.

No, you can't.

Can they?

Yes, they can.

No, they can't.

 

Sources:

https://www.english-4u.de/en/grammar/short-answers.html

https://www.thoughtco.com/short-answer-speech-1691955 (Marian Keyes, Anybody Out There? William Morrow, 2006)

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